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Mr. Forrest teaches a general education kindergarten class. The class includes Lily, who is receiving Tier 3 Response to Intervention (RtI) services to help her strengthen


Exhibit 1

Class Description

Mr. Forrest teaches a general education kindergarten class. The class includes Lily, who is receiving Tier 3 Response to Intervention (RtI) services to help her strengthen her numeracy concepts and skills, and Theodore, who is a student with a disability classified with autism. Theodore has an Individualized Education Program (IEP). Both Lily and Theodore speak English as their home language.

Lily’s receptive and expressive language development is commensurate with that of her classmates. Lily receives Tier 3 RtI services for 25 minutes, five times a week, beyond core instruction in math, to promote her grasp of mathematics concepts and skills.

Theodore is verbal, but he only likes to talk about topics of particular interest to him (e.g., cars). His favorite activity is lining up small toy cars end-to-end in a long row, and he becomes very agitated if anyone disturbs his line of cars. He rarely participates in class discussions, and tends to wander away during morning meeting. Theodore is performing on grade level in numeracy skills development, but is below grade level in decoding and sight word recognition. He receives services from his special education teacher in the resource room to address his needs in the area of reading for one hour a day, and he is accompanied by an aide at all other times during the school day.

Exhibit 2

Excerpt from Informal Classroom Observations of Lily by Mr. Forrest (January, current year)

Lily needs significant support with everyday tasks involving mathematical thinking, particularly those tasks requiring an understanding of one-to-one correspondence. For example, when it is her turn to set the snack table, she does not place one napkin at each chair as I modeled for her, but places them around the table randomly, putting clumps of napkins by some chairs and none by others. Similarly, when she was recently asked to give one piece of paper to each student at her table, she handed out several sheets to some students and missed others entirely.

Her ability to understand and perform quantity discrimination also needs to be strengthened. At the manipulatives table, where she was playing with three blocks and the child next to her was playing with 20 or more blocks of the same size, Lily was unable to tell me whether she or her classmate had more blocks. When I asked Lily to count her blocks, she said, “One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten!” very rapidly, making no reference to the three blocks in front of her. When I modeled counting her blocks by touching each and saying “One, two, three,” she was unable to imitate my action independently, even after I had physically helped her touch her blocks as she counted each one.

Exhibit 3

Excerpt from Mr. Forrest’s Draft Lesson Plan

Topic: Counting and Cardinality

Standards:  Count to 100 by ones and by tens. (NYCCLS M.K.CC.1) Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality. (NYCCLS M.K.CC.4) Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies. (NYCCLS M.K.CC.6)

Lesson Objectives:  Students will count to 10 by ones.  Students will compare numbers of objects up to 10.

Grouping:  Students will work individually.

Vocabulary:  cardinal number names 1–10, count, more than, fewer than, same as

Materials:  strips of poster board, small picture cards of animals, paste, crayons

Lesson Component



Ask the students if they have ever counted anything. Give each of them the opportunity to tell about something they have counted, to demonstrate counting or to give reasons why they use counting. Notes:  Have students sit on their carpet squares in the morning meeting area.

Individual Activity

Tell the students that they may each choose up to 10 pictures of different animals from a box of pictures the teacher will bring around the class. After choosing their picture cards, the students will paste their cards in a line on a strip of poster board. The students will use crayons to decorate their animal cards.  Notes:  Have the students count aloud as they choose each card. Monitor to make sure they count accurately. Ask each student to state how many cards he or she has chosen before moving on to the next student.

Class Activity

The teacher will ask pairs of students to come to the front of the class to show their strips of animal cards. Each student will hold up his or her strip and count the number of cards. Ask the two students to tell whether they have the same number of cards or whether one strip has more or fewer cards.  Notes:  Monitor the attention paid by the seated students and involve them by asking questions about the card strips being shown (e.g., How many cats are on Miguel’s strip? Who has the same number of animals as Irina?).

Assignment: Use the exhibits to complete the task that follows.

15. After analyzing the information provided, write a response of approximately 200-300 words in which you:

· identify one aspect of the draft lesson plan that would be difficult for Theodore;

· describe one modification you would make to the draft lesson plan to address this area of difficulty; and

· explain why this modification you described would be effective for Theodore.

The final version of your response should conform to the conventions of edited American English.

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