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Children’s development is greatly influenced by early childhood education. Childhood is the time when children develop fundamental skills and acquire knowledge which will serve as the foundation for their lives as they grow older. There have

Criteria –1

  1. General information about curriculum models ECE
  2. Impotence of curriculum models
  3. Identify two curriculum models
  4. Describe the two curriculum models
  5. Compare and contrast characteristic (provide intext citations)
    Teaching approaches, teaching methodology, learning material, family engagement, aesthetic classroom, peer relations (collaboration), community engagement
  6. Appraise some characteristics of the curriculum models.

Children’s development is greatly influenced by early childhood education. Childhood is the time when children develop fundamental skills and acquire knowledge which will serve as the foundation for their lives as they grow older. There have been many curriculum models that have been developed over the years with the purpose of achieving this goal. The curriculum was initially linked to education in the 16th century as a systematic framework for teaching and learning described in (Murrayd, 2022). This framework facilitates the continuity of learning throughout the early childhood years. As part of explicit curriculum, early childhood programs identify the content children need to learn, how they achieve these goals, what teachers do to help children reach those goals, and the context in which teaching and learning take place in the 21st century which was mentioned in (Murray, 2022). The phrase “curriculum model” refers to a framework and organizational structure for deciding educational priorities, governmental rules, teaching strategies, and assessment standards. Curriculum models offer clear guidance for designing and delivering educational programs. Using curriculum models that provide a framework, which can be adapted to meet the particular needs of each child, they assist educators in organizing and sequencing learning experiences to achieve specific learning objectives. A variety of curriculum options are available including the subject-centered, learner-centered, and problem-centered framework.

The subject-centered framework focuses on the content, while the learner-centered framework emphasizes the needs and interests of the students. On the other hand, the problem-centered framework focuses on real-world problems that students can solve through collaboration and critical thinking mentioned in (Pink, 2020). A curriculum framework can employ a variety of pedagogical practices. The term pedagogy describes a theoretical basis for the implementation of curriculum approaches, establishing principles and values for the manner in which classes are taught, and interactions are conducted that has viewed in (OCED,2021). Thus, pedagogy clarifies the nature and purpose of education as well as informs specific learning modes across activities. Therefore, pedagogy can be both inspirational and supportive of the curriculum.

A variety of early childhood education models have gained recognition for their unique approaches. This paper reviews Montessori education and Reggio Emilia education. In the early 1900s, a physician named Dr Maria Montessori in Rome conceptualized Montessori’s educational model, which has been widely adopted throughout the world.

In 1907, she founded her Casa dei Bambini (Children’s House) for children aged 4-7 in a poor slum in Rome after developing a methodology for working with children with disabilities stated in (Ruhl & AnalystB.A., 2023). Education according to the Montessori method, developed by Maria Montessori, is the child-centered approach. In a classroom, the Montessori method is designed to provide a rich and stimulating environment in which children can explore and become independent. The materials are organized and easily accessible to the children, allowing them to choose the activities that interest them.

Childrenare encouraged to select their own activities and work at their own pace based on the Montessori approach, which promotes self-directed learning. Depending on their interests and developmental needs, they are encouraged to explore and engage with a variety of materials. In classrooms, they generally have mixed-age groups that enable children to learn and grow through interaction with peers of varying ages. This fosters collaboration, peer mentoring, and social development seen in (Aljabreen, 2020). The Montessori method of teaching utilizes a variety of materials that are specifically designed to promote sensory exploration, motor skills development, and cognitive understanding of the children. These materials encourage active learning and provide concrete experiences for abstract concepts. An important component of this method is fostering independence and self-discipline as well as life skills. Children are encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning, care for the classroom environment, and engage in practical life activities such as cooking, cleaning, and self-care.

The Reggio Emilia Approach was developed in the town of Reggio Emilia in Italy after World War II as a project-based, experiential learning approach that emphasizes creativity and the arts (Aljabreen, 2020). A key principle of the Reggio Emilia approach is its belief that children are competent learners, the importance of collaboration and communication, and the role of the environment as the third teacher. Children are encouraged to collaborate on projects that reflect their interests and curiosity as part of the Reggio Emilia approach to learning. The projects are often long-term and involve in depth investigations, allowing children to develop a deep understanding of the topic at hand. (Shalley et al., 2017). An insect project, for instance, could involve children observing, researching, and creating artwork based on insects which allows children to see how different subjects relate to one another and make connections across them. As part of the Reggio Emilia approach, learning environments are carefully designed to facilitate exploration and creativity. Classrooms are designed to be aesthetically pleasing, welcoming, and organized. Among their attributes are natural materials, open spaces, and displays of children’s work. The role of the teacher is to facilitate learning and provide support, rather than to serve as a sole source of authority. Through the collaborative and child-led approach, students gain a sense of ownership and engagement in their learning. Throughout the Reggio Emilia approach, documentation is essential.

Teaching and learning are documented by photography, videotaped, created art, and documented observations. It is mentioned in (Shalley et al., 2017) that a copy of this documentation is kept on file for the purposes of reflection, assessment, and communication with parents. Collaboration and involvement of parents, teachers, and community members have been seen as essential to their children’s success, and their perspectives and collaborations are highly valued and encouraged in Reggio Emilia and Montessori offer child-centered and holistic approaches to learning.

However, their respective teaching methods and environments differ significantly. In this approach, children are perceived to be naturally curious and to have an innate desire to learn. Montessori’s principal feature is the prepared environment, Self – Directed Learning, Mixed- Age Grouping and focuses on independent skills which has also been mentioned in (Aljabreen, 2020).

Learning Criteria 2


  1. Idnetify the theroretical perspectives that underpin curriculum model.
  2. Provide in-text citation
  3. Appraise / evaluate theoretical perspectives – give your own voice.

Learning Criteria 3

KEY WORDS – Justify pedagogy, influence (personal and professional) philosophy

Perspectives (Theory, thinking, What)?

Pedagogy (ways of Teaching, How)?


  1. Refer to theoretical perspectives (Thinking, and what?) and draw lines to pedagogy (action and how)
  2. Provide intext citations
  3. Give two or more aspects of pedagogy for e.g., Raggio’s documentation
  4. How do your beliefs about documentational influence you as an EC educator?
  5. What are the actions you foresee to undertake? Translate thinking into actions
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