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I will present on race and ethnic relations in a Nigeria. I have done some worked and attached (re)sources on Nigeria that I want you to use. You are ONLY require to complete a two-page data handout, which summarizes this information below and then put together a brief PowerPoint so that I can give a presentation.
In this presentations, you should describe Nigerias:
a) understanding of what race is (i.e., its racial regime?) and its major cleavages, tensions, and/or understandings of race and ethnicity,
b) history of racial and ethnic relations (including colonialism),
c) ethnic and racial composition today,
d) current pressing issues or conflicts in race and ethnic relations, and
e) social movements and/or government efforts aimed at ending racial and ethnic conflict and reducing racial and ethnic stratification.
Requirements: | .ppt file
INTRODUCTIONMost developing countries are ethnicallydiverse. For many years, social sciences preferredto ignore the brute fact of ethnic identity. Morerecently, evidence is accumulating that isdetrimental to economic performance.Journalistic accounts of wars in Rwanda, Somalia,Sudan, and several other countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concernthat ethnic cleavages and overlapping affiliationsof religion and race may undermine prospectsfor economic and political development in muchof Africa.Ethnic diversity may lead to increased civilstrife. This perception is fostered both by somegraphic individual scenes of inter ethnic violence,and by an aggregate correlation: Africa has notonly the highest ethnic diversity, but also thehighest incidence of civil war. Potentially, thismight account for the detrimental economiceffects of diversity. In countries of traditionalstability, ethnic conflict is becoming an increasingfactor. In Kenya, ethnic tensions related to multi-party elections resulted in the deaths of 1,500people between late 1991 and late 1993. Additionaldeaths have occurred in relation to the electionin 1997, including post election recriminationsagainst non-government voting areas in earlyJanuary 1998. South Africa lost 14,000 citizensdue to the racial and ethnic violence, which waspart of transition to majority rule between 1990and 1994.Several other conflicts, which have affectedAfricans, are prominent in Sudan; a civil conflictstretching back four decades has pitted the Arab-Moslem North against the non-Arab Christianand animist south. The most current phase, whichbegan in 1993, has resulted in the deaths of aboutone million people due either directly to the waror starvation caused by the war. Often in suchconflicts food deprivation is used as aninstrument of war. Because of government controlof the media and the drawn out nature of theconflict, it is mostly forgotten by Westernsociety. More dramatic events recently hasfocused on Rwanda where Hutus staged aslaughter of Tutsis resulting in an estimated300,000 deaths in the first half of 1994 and anadditional 20,000 in the refugee camps ofneighboring countries, where a total of 1.7 millionpeople had fled. Tension between the same ethnic? Kamla-Raj 2006J. Soc. Sci., 12(2): 101-114 (2006)Ethnic Conflicts in Contemporary Africa:The Nigerian ExperienceTokunbo Simbowale Osinubi1 and Oladipupo Sunday Osinubi21. Department of Economics, Faculty of The Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, OyoState, NigeriaE-Mail: Tokunbosinubi@Yahoo.Co.Uk2. Department of Political Science, Faculty of The Social Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka,Lagos, NigeriaE-Mail: Diposinubi@Yahoo.ComKEYWORDS Democratisation; ethnicity; conflicts; nigeriaABSTRACT Most developing countries are ethnically diverse. Ethnic diversity may lead to increased civil strife.This perception is tottered both by some graphic individual scenes of inter ethnic violence, and by an aggregatecorrelation: Africa has not only the highest ethnic diversity, but also the highest incidence of civil war. Potentially,this might account for the detrimental economic effect of diversity. In countries of traditional stability, ethnicconflict is becoming an increasing factor. Ethnic conflicts have become the serious challenge of our times, whichperhaps explains why ethnicity is seen as the reigning concept in African studies at present. In Nigeria, the colonialmasters provided urban setting, which constitutes the cradle of contemporary ethnicity. The colonialist whilepretending to carry out a mission of uniting the warring ethnic groups, consciously and systematically separated thevarious Nigerian people thereby creating a suitable atmosphere for conflict. With the heterogeneous nature of thecountry, the tendency of the various nationals is towards parochial consciousness at the expense of nationalconsciousness. This study, therefore, relies on content analysis as its methodology to examine ethnic conflicts inNigeria. It also examines the effects of ethnic conflicts on the countrys search for unity and identifies the possibleissues for resolution. The study also proffered suggestions on how to curb ethnic conflicts in Nigeria.
TOKUNBO SIMBOWALE OSINUBI AND OLADIPUPO SUNDAY OSINUBI102groups in neighboring Burundi have been highfor much of the independence period, are costing100,000 lives in 1972 and another 20,000 in 1988.In Somalia, the fall of Said Barre in early 1991 ledto an expanded conflict in which 300,000 peopledied of starvation due to war and instabilitydespite the efforts of Western governments,NGOs and the United Nations.Ethnic conflicts have become the seriouschallenge of our times, which perhaps explainswhy ethnicity is seen as the reigning concept inAfrican studies at present. Deeper reflectionshows, however, that although ethnicity ispowerful, it is neither absolute nor immutable,nor is it inherently destructive. Ethnic identitiesare not pre-ordained: they are deliberatelyconstructed and constantly modified. Peoplechoose to be ethnically inclined when this meetstheir needs and expectations. Ethnicity is whatremains after all else is lost ? that is a deprivationof the determinants that make individual socially,economically and politically. Ethnicity is anindividual falling back onto an identity, whichprovides him with a psychological safety net. Itis a weapon of manipulation by the state,particularly where what obtains is not the nationalstate, but the nation state.In Nigeria, the colonial masters providedurban setting, which constitutes the cradle ofcontemporary ethnicity. The British colonialistwhile pretending to carry out a mission of unitingthe warring ethnic groups consciously andsystematically separated the various Nigerianpeople thereby creating a suitable atmospherefor conflict. With the heterogeneous nature ofthe country, the tendency of the variousnationals is towards parochial consciousness atthe expense of national consciousness. A farreaching and in-depth survey of Nigeria publicopinion carried out by the InternationalFoundation for Elections Systems-IFES on behalfof United States Agency for InternationalDevelopment-USAID in 2000 found out thatethnicity is the strongest type of identity amongNigerians. Almost half of all Nigerians (48.2%)choose to tag themselves with an ethnic?identity.Ethnic conflicts in Nigeria and Africa ingeneral arise as result of scarcity of politicalresources, multi-culturalism, religion,militarisation of ethnicity among others. Theseconflicts cannot be ignored. It is thereforepatently clear that realistic measures to solvethese problems are needed. This study, therefore,relies on content analysis as its methodology toexamine ethnic conflicts in Nigeria. It alsoexamines the effects of ethnic conflicts on thecountrys search for unity and identifies thepossible issues for resolution.The rest of this study is divided into threesections. Section two reviews the literature.Section three contains the ethnic conflictssituation in Nigeria, while section four concludesthe study.LITERATURE REVIEWAt the present time, there is plethora of viewson the nature and cases of ethnic conflicts inNigeria and Africa in general. In Africa, the spreadof mighty wave of tensions and conflicts, andindeed civil wars, is already threatening thesurvival of some states. Several complex crisesare currently manifesting themselves in ethnicforms. The ethnic conflicts threatening thestability of numerous countries today are notjust a reflection of traditional sentiments thatstubbornly refuse to die. They stem in part fromthe success of modernization, which haveequipped ethnic communities with new politicalresources and aspirations. This literature reviewlooks at some writers opinions concerning theethnic conflict issue.Ethnicity and ColonizationNwosu (1999) says the colonization of Africaand several other third world states ensured thatpeoples of diverse culture were brought togetherunder one country. To him, because of themission of colonialism, most of these peopleswere not well integrated into the new states.Instead, some of the imperial powers cashed inon the cultural divergence of these countries toensure the examination of their objectives. Hefurther said, it is thus not surprising that yearsafter colonialism, these states remained lowlyintegrated. This low level of integration hasprecipitated crises in many of the countries. TheAfrican continent, for instance, has witnessedmany conflict situations leading to shooting wars,political and economic instability as well as socialdisequilibrium.?To Vandenberg (1998), the problem of ethnicconflict was mooted under colonialism becauseAfricans had no control over the central powerand often were kept divided into administrativedistricts by Europeans.
ETHNIC CONFLICTS IN CONTEMPORARY AFRICA: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE103Welsh (1996) see violent and intractableinternal conflicts in recent years in Somalia,Liberia, Rwanda, Burundi, and Sudan as thefailure of states in sub-Saharan Africa to copewith ethnicity. He examines the association ofethnic identities with the colonial period and the?instrumentalist contention that ethnicity wasinvented for political purposes. He notes boththat the imperial powers in Africa did little toprepare the colonies for independence and alsothat, given the imperatives of the colonial system;it was unrealistic to expect them to do more.Osaghae (1986) believes that because mostAfrican States as we Know today are ?artificialcolonial creation, the major problems they haveall faced since attaining independence havearisen from the deep cleavages which existbetween the diverse people who make up thesestates. To him, these cleavages are often markedby strong sectional loyalties that compete withmuch desired loyalty to the nation or nation-to-be. Consequently, the major problem in mostAfrica states, he argued, has to do with creatingoverarching loyalties to the nation over and abovethe primordial and sub-national loyalties. Oncethese sub-national loyalties are eradicated, it isusually claimed, national integration and, with it,political stability is assured. Furthermore, he seesethnicity as basically a product of competitionfor scare resources between groups inmultiethnic societies. Ethnicity is generallyregarded as a ?dying force, which has resultedin a resurgence of ethnically inspired conflicts.For example he asserted that Nigeria has had afair share of such conflicts, including a civil war(1967 ? 1979), and the problem has continuouslybeen how to ensure the adequate accommodationof diversities in the polity.Ethnic Conflict and Economic ReformsIn relating ethnic conflicts and economicreforms in Africa, Ogachi (1999) believes thatviolent ethnic conflicts have increased in Africa,especially from the mid 1970s, and have pickedup on a large scale from the 1980s. To him, thiswas a period during which most African countriesentered a state of economic austerity. At the sametime, pressure was put on these countries fromthe international community to initiateprogrammes of political and economicliberalization. As a result of this, by 1980, mostAfrica countries had entered into agreementswith international financial institutions on specificareas of economic reform without much insistenceon political reforms.Furthermore to him, from this statement, threeobservations can be made to help build a holistictheory of studying conflicts in Africa. The firsthas to do with manner in which the reforms (bothpolitical and economic) were introduced andimplemented. While the donors have insistedthat democratic political systems are crucial forthe success of the economic reforms, they havealways not put into place. The secondobservation in his view relates to the nature ofthe current spate of ethnic conflicts in Africa.The level of violence and organization makesthem slightly different from those that wereexperience during the colonial period and maytherefore not adequately capture the internaldynamics of these conflicts-cause and effects.To him, new theoretical postulations have to besought. Thirdly, the point that has already beenmade about the occurrence of the presentconflicts in Africa, concurrently with theeconomic and political reforms policies, to himpersuades one to seek a framework with whichlocates the converging points of ethnicity,economic austerity and adjustment regimes inAfrica. In his submission, ethnicity should notalways be seen as a colonial invention in Africaor just a continuation of the pre-colonialmanifestation of sheer tribal emotions aspostulated by the modernization school (Ogachi,1999).Magubane (1962) argued convincingly thata focus on ethnicity impedes a serious effort tounderstand Africa societies because it ignoresthe ownership of the primary productive forces,the material basis of societies, and nature of thesocial system.Similarly, Richard Sklar (1963) views the focuson ethnicity as obscuring the fact that in Africa,ethnic movements may be created and instigatedto action by the new men of power in furtheranceof their own special interest which at time andagain are constitutive of interest of emergingsocial classes. In this way, ethnicity becomes amask for class privileges.Ethnicity and NationalismOttawa (1999) said some shift has beenwitnessed now. He declared that for after a longtime of being treated as some kind of pariahs
TOKUNBO SIMBOWALE OSINUBI AND OLADIPUPO SUNDAY OSINUBI104ethnic identities and ethnic nationalism havegained strength and even a degree of legitimacyin recent years. To him, alongside theinterpretation of ethnic passions, ethnic hatred,ethnic cleansing and genocide, ethnic dynamicscould also be viewed as struggles by thedominated and oppressed groups for greaterautonomy and for the protection of their rights.Wallerstein (1979) asserts that ethnicconsciousness and conflict occur when groupsfeel threatened with loss of previously acquiredprivilege, or conversely feel that it is an opportunemoment politically to overcome a longstandingdenial of privilege. He said, the mechanisms andmachinations through which these groupsadvance their aims is what cause ethnic tensionsand conflicts. To him, the present manifestationof ethnicity in Africa is an elite and classphenomenon where one communitys elites feelexcluded by another from control of economicand political power. They then indoctrinatemembers of their ethnicity to believe that this is aconspiracy by a whole community againstanother, which should be violently resisted.Nnoli (1995) asserts that ethnicity holdindividual together, gives them internal cohesion,encourages them to provide natural security foreach other and promotes their sense of identityand direction. To him, ethnicity offers a personalsolution to the problems of exploitation,oppressions, deprivation and alienation.Furthermore, he notes, in the context of aninterventionist state, the ruling class use the stateto build up their business enterprises. Thestruggle of the ethnic factions of these classesfor state patronage in the process of embour-geoisement generates and promotes ethnicity.Ibrahim (1995) said a major contributory factorto ethnic conflicts is the undemocratic nature ofgovernance. He says many African regimes andrulers have repressed sections of the people, andby implication, ignored their aspirations. Somehave employed divide-and-rule method ingovernance, and created more ethno-religiousdivisions than the colonialist ever did. To him,once degenerated regimes find their legitimacyput in question, because they no longer care forthe majority of the people, or protect the publicgood, and fail to protect or defend the peoplesrights, they tend to identify the process ofrepression. He believes when governancedecays, the people retreat into sectarian enclaves,which are seen as providing security.Diamond (1988) attributes crises and conflictin post-colonial politics in Nigeria to theemergence of a modern state with vast economicresources. To him, the legacy that colonial ruleleft was the development of a modern state thatdwarfed all other organized elements of economyand society. He agree that the state in the post-colonial era was a capitalists type because thedominant few usually controlled it and translatedpolitical power into the mean of accumulating forthemselves the wealth and resources of the states.Synder (1993) believes the state has beendesignated as a principal actor in the source ofconflicts in Nigeria. But to him, those who holdthat view have failed to consider the failed statephenomenon in the Third World, which revivesor sustain the spirit of ethnic nationalism.According to him, ethnic nationalismpredominates when institutions collapse, whenexisting institutions are not fulfilling peoplesbasic needs and when satisfactory alternativestructures are not readily available, that is, whenthere is lack of effective statehood. To him,options emerged from a failed state phenomenon:political society revels in anarchy and therefollows the process of carving out mini states ?around dominant ethnic groups. It can be arguedthat the process of state making was constructedalong the line of alienation and exclusion of ethnicsocieties from political participation and exerciseof power. This keeps on generating a conflictionprocess, which eventually returns the state failureexperience.The United Nations Research Institute forSocial Development (UNRISD) stated in 1995 thatethnicity is a resilient paradigm used in explainingthe nature of conflict in Nigeria. In UNRISDReport, it is held that Nigeria as a political societycomprises many ethnic groups, which rubshoulders with each other, so there is bound tobe conflict. The central assumption of thisviewpoint is that ethnicity has the potential totranscend other loyalties and obligations andbecome the sole basis of identity. This may leadto conflict when peoples multiple identities arenarrowed down to a single focus, and socialdivision become deeper and more rigid. Thesubmission of the UNRISD Report is that,ethnicity is a deeply emotional basis ofmobilization that not merely distinguishes onegroup from the other, but also dehumanizes theother group.
ETHNIC CONFLICTS IN CONTEMPORARY AFRICA: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE105Ethnicity and National UnityTo Kazah-Toure (2000), the spread of a mightywave of ethnic tensions and conflicts threatensnational unity and harmonious inter-ethnicrelations. Even though more complex factors havebeen at the base, conflicts and struggles in Nigeriaare increasingly manifesting in ethnic forms. Hestated further that elsewhere on the Africancontinent, violent and bloody conflicts are moreoften assuming inter-ethnic and inter-ethno/religious proportions. He believes that on theattainment of independence from Europeancolonial domination, mostly from the 1950s ?many African leaders and regimes kept on withthe tempo of denouncing the threat posed to thenew states by ethnicity and regionalism. Beyondthe appearance of this position of protecting theindivisibility of the nation state (from the deadlyvirus of ethnicity) was the politics of providingjustification for one party systems and stiflingpluralism. He asserts that a paradox of theposition was the reality that many of theproclaimed anti-ethnicist and anti-regionalistleaders were themselves using ethnicity andregionalism as weapons to exclude, to hold ontopower, marginalize and repress those in theoppositions-as well as to forces perceived eitheras rivals or enemies.Nwaezeigwe (1998) is of the view thatEthnicity is an instrument of groupsconsciousness which serves to elevate onespride and sense of being. It serves as the crimefond of ones belongingness the essence of hisNigerianess. Every Nigerian is so by the fact ofhis identity with a particular ethnic groupgeographically situated in the present politicalNigeria. Thus ethnicity in its fundamental senseis an exhibition of common ethnic identity indifference to the members of other cultural groupswithin a definable geo-political setting?.Agbese (1985) said, Many have come to seethat Nigerias problem were partly man-made andpartly, tailored, it imperfectly by nature itself. Man-made problems relates mainly to the manner ofthe countrys colonization, while problemscreated by nature concern its geography andethnic composition. The balkanization of thecountry into three regions of unreasonablyunequal sizes was a grievous error of politicaljudgment on the part of the British. It was aperfect recipe for an unhealthy national diet.?Obiatuegwu (1985) argued that the mostserious threat to harmony, progress and integralnationhood of Nigeria over the years, has beenthe over-sharpened ethnic sensitivities of itspeoples. He asserts that ethnic loyalties havebecome so infused into the psyche of the nation,that not only have more elegant phrases emerged,but such decadantants-nationalistic obsessionshave form the basis for much of the nationalpolicies. For him, the nations inadvertently havebeen promoting circumstances that not onlysensitize, but also politize the ethnic differencesin the country.Nnoli (1978) in another book expressedsentiment in an atmosphere of extreme socio-economic competition and political scarcityprevailing in Nigeria. To him, few members of theprivileged class are confident enough of theirability to survive. Most prefer the security ofbeing able to rely on exploiting ethnic preferencesif possible. He further argues that the unbiquitousmalaise of ethnicity had infected all facets ofcommunication. In the process of socialization,ethnicity has become internalized and increased.Consequently, the ethnic factor assumed a self-fulfilling and sustaining dynamics of its ownwhich daily reinforced the individuals internalizedethnic sentiments. The persistence and growthof ethnicity in Nigeria had become inevitable.Akinyemi and Ofonagoro (2000) noted thatthe need for the principle of equity to be appliedin the administration of the emerging nation datedback to the colonial period. The fear ofdomination, which developed in the minds ofminority groups, coupled with inter-ethnicsuspicions among the majority group help toprove the fact that Britain and even Nigeriansrecognized the fact that they are not one people.Omuabor (2000) believes that suppression ofethnic conflicts by force is never a lastingsolution. It is like capping a seething volcano.Sooner than later, it erupts. He gave the instancewhen Nigerias former self-styled militarypresident, Ibrahim Babangida, annulled theresults of the June 12, 1993 presidential election;violent protest took over the streets of most citiesin Western Nigeria. To him, the feeling in thatpart of the country was that it had been robbedof a golden chance to produce a civilian president.The undeclared winner of that election, MoshoodAbiola was Yoruba, the predominant ethnic groupin that region. Furthermore, he asserts that theevents of that period are generally believed tohave given birth to the Oodua Peoples Congress
TOKUNBO SIMBOWALE OSINUBI AND OLADIPUPO SUNDAY OSINUBI106(OPC), an unusually militant Yoruba group thatuses violence to redress perceived injusticeagainst the Yoruba. He stated that the birth ofthe OPC symbolizes the new spirit among theYoruba to ?square up to any ethnic group thatworks against in interest. This development tohim led to the formation of Arewa PeoplesCongress (APC), an unusually militant Hausagroup, to counter the activities of the OPC. OPCand APC aside, a group of militant Ijaw Youthscalled Egbesu Boys also evolved out of recentIjaw wars with the Itsekiri and Ilaje ethnicnationalities in the oil-rich Niger-Delta. Hissubmission is that, but for the absence ofuniforms, these groups are ethnic armies whohave sworn to defend and fight for the interestof their ethnic groups.Ethnicity and Political PowerCommenting on the Africa level Omuabor(2000), further believes the quest by ethnic groupsto wield political power is not a new phenomenon.To him, the history of Africa could easily bedescribed as a running tale of ethnic struggles.The colonial experience reinforce ethnic rivalryespecially where colonist entrenched ethnicminority elite, as in Rwanda and Burundi, or evencreated them, as in Liberia, Sierra-Leone andAngola where freed slaves became rulers, orEuropean settlers intermarried to form a crole elite.Osaghae (2000) says that since its colonialbeginnings the Africa state has centralized theproduction and distribution of resources,patronage and privileges, and this has made itthe object of political competition. He also makesa case for economic deregulation as a recipe forconflict management.Maitama-Sule (2000) traces the quest forpower and the resultant ethnic conflicts toambition and agreed. These negative instinctsof man have continued to sour human relationsand fortunes, with the result that incidents ofpopulation displacement are on the increase ona large scale, and the misery associated with suchdisplacement is getting more and more acute.Oyekanmi (2000), though, reckonsdeprivation; a scene of alienation and a deter-mination by ethnic groups to be part of thecontrol of resources are the primary factors thatcause ethnic conflicts in Africa. She adds thatthese groups resort to violence when they arenot assured of other ways of seeking redressand getting justice.Agbu (2000) believes poverty alone canprovide inducement for such conflicts. He says,we all know the economic conditions of mostpeople in Africa. We have seen whole groupsimpoverished. Unless such groups areempowered deliberately, strife may never end onthe continent.From our point of view, Ethnic situation inAfrica acknowledge the heterogeneity of ethnicgroups in terms of culture and languages thatare endemic in diverse origin and history. Ethnicconflicts erupt when the claims of one party toland and territory become incompatible with thedesire of others to satisfy their own basic interestand needs within the same physical territory. Theconsequences of the ethnic conflicts, whether inAfrica or elsewhere, could be nation destroying.No country can afford the luxury of allowingethnic conflict free rein or ignoring it. Every multi-ethnic state has tried to devise ways of copingwith conflicts, several universal prescription andformulas that have been popularized. Failure toresolve conflicts over access to commonly valuedscare resources, and over divergent perceptionsof socio-political situations, has the highpotential of degenerating into genocide orfratricide as it occurred among the Ife andModakeke (Yorubas) in Southwestern Nigeria,Zongon-Kataf (Hausas) crisis in NorthernNigeria, Aguleri and Umuleri (Ibos) in EasternNigeria, and the Tiv ? Jukun of Middle-Belt,Nigeria, and the Hutu ? Tutsi of Burundi andRwanda in East Africa.The problem of land resources-territorialinhabitation-as a factor in ethnicity/ethnicconflicts in Nigeria for instance has becomeexacerbated since the 1970s and especially asfrom the 1990s when oil companies in the Niger-Delta and other oil producing states, identifiedoil exploration activities. Fiercely contestedclaims, based on descent or genealogy andkinship symbols have made over territories inrespect of which compensation and royalties aredemanded and paid. This factor has been an openinvitation not only to conflicts betweencommunities or ethnic groups, but also betweenthe ethnic groups or communities and oilcompanies and government. This kind ofconflicts has become a daily occurrence in theoil producing areas of the South-South andSouth-Eastern geo-political zones with ripplesand consequences for the rest of Nigeria.
ETHNIC CONFLICTS IN CONTEMPORARY AFRICA: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE107THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKThe theoretical framework for our analysis inthis study is the Conflict Theory.Ethnic conflict may take several forms, whichcan be classified, as violent and non-violent.Violent ethnic conflicts usually erupt in placeswhere the government is an instrument of groupdomination and where the channel for articulatingdemands is closed. These form ranges from riotto secession and civil wars (which have beenexperienced in most part of the continent of Africanotably Congo, Nigeria, Liberia, Sudan, Ethiopia,Rwanda and Cameroon). While Non-violentconflict includes articulation of changes ofdiscrimination, neglect or domination, demandsfor redress through the press, ethnic leaders,political parties, law courts, and other civilmethods of articulating demand (Osaghae, 1992).Ethnic conflict entails a clash of cultures. Itpits against each other people whose values arein conflict, who want different things, and whodo not understand each other. Ethnic conflict isbrought about by modernization. Modernizationmakes people want the same things, not differentthings, and this sets up a great scramble forresources. Ethnic conflict is the result ofeconomic competition between ethnicallydifferentiated segments of the working class orethnically differentiated traders and customers.Elite competition and the actions of ethnicentrepreneurs drive ethnic conflict. Elitesmanipulate ethnic identities in their quest forpower, and they construct ethnic conflict. Ethnicconflict is produced by the insecurity thatemerges when an actor is unsure of the intentionsof another actor and the two are already mutuallyhostile (Horowitz, 1998).Portions of the phenomenon of ethnicconflict have been discovered or rediscoveredand then asserted to be characteristic of thewhole phenomenon. If there are powerfulemotions, or if ethnic group loyalty supersedesto other groups, all ethnic conflict must beprimordial. If politician benefit from calculativebehaviour, or if group struggle over resources,ethnic conflict must be instrumental. Clearly, whatis needed is a theory that can embrace the dis-parate manifestations of ethnic conflict behaviour(Horowitz, 1998).Several schools of thought advanceconflicting theories of ethnic conflicts, in variouspermutations and combinations, the issues onwhich they differ are several, but the differencecan be reduced to hard views of ethnic conflictsversus soft view, where hard and soft refer to thenature of group affiliations and the end of conflictbehaviours. The hard views of ethnic conflictssees ethnic groups as ascriptive, firmly boundedentities based on a strong sense of commonality,producing considerable loyalty, persisting overtime, providing large affective rewards to groupmembers, inclined to ethnocentrism and tohostility to and a desire to dominate outsiders,liable to conflict behaviour based on passion,and engendering a great willingness on the partof group members to sacrifice for collectivewelfare (Horowitz, 1998).In the case of the soft position, ethnic groupsare entities whose boundaries are problematicand malleable, whose solidarity is based on thematerial rewards they provide for their membersrather than on diffuse affection, whose behaviour,based on the interest of their member, is vulnerableto strategic manipulation, whose apparent affectcan often be reduced to calculation, and whosesevere conflicts with others often result lessirreconcilable objectives than from strategicdilemmas. These are hard and soft positions inthe sense that the first sees ethnic affiliations asmade of stone, while the second sees them asmade of putty (Horowitz, 1998).The opportunities for disaggregated analysisare enormous. Everywhere the issue of the birthand death of ethnic groups present itself forexplanation. In some states, ethnic conflicts pre-empts conflict along other cleavage lines; inothers, it coexists with them; elsewhere, ethnicconflicts is restrained. In some states, interethnicattitudes remain unremittingly hostile; in others,they have undergone changes, whether benignor malign. In some states, seem

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