Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) is the backbone of modern electronics. It can be used as a switch and as an amplifier, the basic functions for digital and analog signal processing, respectively. Depending on the nature of applications, electronic components are physically realized in the form of discrete (individual) or integrated circuits (ICs), both involve various semiconductor fabrication processes such as deposition, lithography, diffusion, etc.
Since the key element of ICs is the transistor, specific processing sequences have been developed according to the type of transistor. The following are some of the IC fabrication technologies:
bipolar technology is developed for Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT),
Complementary MOS (CMOS) technology is to fabricate both n-channel and p-channel MOSFETs on the same substrate,
BiCMOS technology is to optimize n-channel and p-channel MOSFETs as well as BJT,
BCDMOS (Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) technology is for high-power technology
Monolithic Microwave IC (MMIC) technology focuses on compound semiconductors and high-speed communications.
In fact, each technology has several variations such are different node sizes, supply voltage, etc. Simpler device structures such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors as well as junctions are inherent in the technologies mentioned earlier.
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