DNP 810 Topic 1 DQ 1
You have studied the essential structural elements of a functional eukaryotic chromosome. Select an essential structural element of interest. What are the implications of this element for research, health, and life span? How can the doctoral-prepared nurse apply this information in practice? Explain. Support your rationale with a minimum of two scholarly sources.
An essential structural element of a functional eukaryotic chromosome of interest:
The study of systems biology, genetics, synthetic biology, and the functional analysis of genomes is the main focus in fields of chromosomal engineering. Eukaryotic cells contain chromosome ends which are protected by telomeres from incomplete DNA synthesis, inappropriate fusion, and degradation during DNA replication. Eukaryotic chromosome ends are divided into two, telomeres and adjacent sub-telomeric regions. Telomeres function is to protect the chromosome ends from external attacks and to avoid the loss of genetic information.
Telomeres: Telomeres consist of double-stranded repetitive G-rich DNA with Telomeres nucleoprotein structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. In order to conserve genetic information, chromosomal stability, and cell survival, maintenance of the proper structure and function of telomeres are crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. The epigenetic regulators play an important role in controlling the chromatin state at the telomeres and the sub-telomeric regions. Telomeres are maintained by cellular activities associated with telomerase and telomere binding proteins which contribute to the maintenance of chromosomal homeostasis in yeast, animals, and plants.
The implications of Telomeres element for research: Research studies shows that the lengths of telomeres at birth are determined by genetic makeup. Other factors such as environmental and living conditions affect the telomere lengths during an individual’s lifespan. Extreme and long-term stress has also been shown to negatively impact telomeres and their protective function and some chromosomal abnormalities in offspring are influenced by the stress experienced by parents (Konečná, K., Lyčka, M., Nohelová, L., Petráková, M., Fňašková, M., Koriťáková, E., Sováková, P., P., Brabencová, S., Preiss, M., Rektor, I., Fajkus, J., Fojtová, M., 2019).
The implications of Telomeres element on health: The previous assumption shows that aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), especially in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) serves as a predictor of neurological disease because the Telomeres ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes shorten in leukocytes with aging (Konečná, et al., 2019).
The implications of Telomeres element for life span: telomeres are most rapidly shortened during the first four years of life and the rate of telomere shortening differs with age. in humans, the telomere length at birth is determined mostly by genetics, environmental conditions, gender, and maternal stress during pregnancy. Modifiable factors that can affect Telomeres include low socioeconomic factors, and lifestyle status including obesity, cigarette smoking, and stress. Exposure to severe and long-lasting stress conditions is associated with shorter telomere length and notable symptoms of premature aging persisted after the stress subsided (Konečná, et al., 2019).
How can the doctoral-prepared nurse apply this information in practice? Explain.
Currently, I work with elderly demented patients and the study of eukaryotic chromosome with a focus on Tolemeres have shed light on some causes of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients. Knowledge gained from this topic shows that individual personality which is difficult to express is a crucial factor in the capability of each person to cope with extremely stressful conditions. Resilient individuals with distinct personal qualities such as optimism, positive affect, self-efficacy, and high self-esteem are relevant parameters to survive post-traumatic stress symptoms Lee, W., K., & Cho, M., H., 2019).
Konečná, K., Lyčka, M., Nohelová, L., Petráková, M., Fňašková, M., Koriťáková, E., Sováková, P., P., Brabencová, S., Preiss, M., Rektor, I., Fajkus, J., Fojtová, M. (2019). Holocaust history is not reflected in telomere homeostasis in survivors and their offspring. Journal of Psychiatric Research. V 117, pp. 7-14. doi: 10.5483/BMBRep.2019.52.3.047. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC6476486/
Lee, W., K., & Cho, M., H. (2019). Epigenetic aspects of telomeric chromatin in Arabidopsis thaliana. Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. V52 (3), pp. 175-180. Retrieved from DOI: 10.5483/BMBRep.2019.52.3.047.