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Discussion Board #4: Social Structure Theory SOC 5Discussion Board #4: Social St

Discussion Board #4: Social Structure Theory
SOC 5Discussion Board #4: Social Structure Theory
Now that you have learned a little about the impact of social class on criminal behavior. Choose from the following activities to pair with the theories presented in the social structure discussion of Chapter 6.
OPTION #1
Open the Game of Life link and read the instructions. Read through the activity and complete the game. Be sure to read the Social Process Chapter before attempting to complete the DB. Post your responses to the reflection questions at the end of the Game of Life Activity.
Game of Life Activity
Power and Control Wheel.pdfDownload Power and Control Wheel.pdfOpen this document with ReadSpeaker docReader
OPTION #2
Human trafficking is a crime largely against women and children. Do online research (videos and articles) on human trafficking. Share your links to the articles and videos in your post. How does social structure theory explain the role of social class in sex trafficking? How does one’s social class make them more vulnerable to victimizations of violence? In the case of the child sex slaves, how does the concentration effect exacerbate sexual exploitation? Which one of Merton’s social adaptations can you apply to the sex traffickers? Which applies to the sex slaves?
OPTION #3
This is really for those who are Star Wars fans since background on character development is needed.

Watch the following clip.Anakin and PadmeLinks to an external site.
What type of murder did Anakin commit in “killing” his wife?
In some cases, one can build an argument that Anakin is a terrorist. How can you justify this statement using the types/forms of terrorists described in Chapter 10?
Apply Agnew’s General Strain theory by identifying and discussing what the three sources of strain are for Anakin (what prevents him from his individual dream? what was the positively values stimuli that was removed? what negative exposure did he experience?), what are his negative affective states, and finally what was his antisocial or criminal behavior that resulted from all of this strain?
Social process theories state that Anakin would have learned to become deviant and stray from the Jedi ways. Who do you think played a pivotal in his socialization towards the darkside? Apply differential association theory and describe the ways in which Anakin learned to internalize the norms, values, behaviors of deviance.
In what ways did Anakin justify or rationalize his deviance? For instance, what techniques of neutralization did he use when after he choked his wife or speaks about taking over the empire?
OPTION #4
Watch the video “Homeless Babies and Toddlers Endure Tough, Long Days On San Diego Streets” 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGgdRoIKenQ
A growing number of homeless children are spending their nights in a San Diego emergency shelter, and their days on the streets. KPBS reporter Susan Murphy tells us about a shelter’s push for a preschool to keep homeless children safe.
Summarize the information from the video. Discuss the lives of the children who stay in the shelter.
Imagine you are a policy maker: What would you recommend to help these children and reduce homelessness?
OPTION #5
Aristotle wrote “poverty is the parent of crime.” What if you were an assistant at the Office of Urban Affairs. Your boss asks you to develop a strategy to reduce crime in East Los Angeles, an area dominated by gangs and crime.
Develop a project that would support children and help them become responsible members of society with the opportunity to find meaningful work and achieve middle-class status.
Write a proposal outlining a development program to revitalize the area and bring down the crime rate. In your essay, describe how the public and private sectors can help with this overwhelming problem. What programs would you recommend to break the cycle of urban poverty?
OPTION #6

Reflect on neighborhoods they have been to (or driven through) where they had a sense that the neighborhood was not a safe area. What characteristics did the area possess that made them feel it wasn’t safe? Watch the video addressing urban crime” atWhy the ‘Broken Windows’ Theory Is Wrong (youtube.com)Links to an external site.
Summarize the information from the video. Discuss how “broken windows” are associated with other crimes. What could be done to reduce crime according to this theory? Of course, please share your thoughts. 
Remember:
Make sure to use proper grammar and punctuation in this college level course in all correspondence. Please avoid “text” or “twitter speak” when corresponding. Take your time when you are writing your posts. It is best to write TOO MUCH than not enough. You can never “over explain” yourself in any of my online classes.
Your main post should be 250+ words. You should post 2 replies at least 3 sentences each.
Eva Prewitt
Jul 9 9:17pm
Manage Discussion by Eva Prewitt
Reply from Eva Prewitt
Option 6 
Social Structure Theory helps to explain how societies are built and how they are organized. The theory analyzes the framework of social life and how people interact and contribute to the whole. 
In 1969, a psychologist from Stanford University, Phillip Zardo, conducted an experiment. He has placed an abandoned car in a poverty-stricken district in New York and another car in a wealthy area of Palo Alto, California. In New York, within 10 minutes, the car had been broken into, vandalized, and stripped for parts. In California, the vehicle was untouched for over a week. Zardo then tested his theory by intentionally breaking the car windows, leading the Californians to follow the New Yorker’s behavior. This social experiment helps to explain how “the visible signs of neglect, such as broken windows, can lead to increased crime and how feelings of anonymity can lure even ‘good citizens’ into bad behavior” (Why the “broken windows” theory is wrong, 2023).
After Zardo’s theory was published, criminologists began to expand on the topic, saying that police officers should focus more on more minor offenses like the use of weed, traffic violations, or disorderly conduct. The idea is that by preventing these more minor crimes, they will eventually prevent much more significant crimes. The argument is then that when law enforcement gets involved with these kinds of minor offenses, situations escalate unnecessarily and can even lead to police brutality or fatality. 
New York then began to implement this theory and focused more on avoiding subway fares, which was regarded as successful. Years later, a Colombia Professor analyzed the data and concluded that this study had not considered “mean reversion.” This means that while the crime rate was lowered, it had only fallen because, years prior, it had been rising. So similar to the stock market, the graph would eventually fall back to average rates, and this testing of the broken window theory was not entirely substantiated. The professor also noted that with this implementation, there was a significant increase in police misconduct. 
With the broken window theory policies practiced in New York, it was concluded that it primarily led to the “over-policing of marginalized communities” and was practiced with unconstitutional means. 
Reflecting on neighborhoods that I had deemed “unsafe” had little to do with the people but the presumptions I had made about the individuals due to the state of their community or surroundings. If I pass through a neighborhood with maybe graffiti, piles of trash on the sidewalks, or broken windows, I assume the people are dangerous or sketchy. 
“Broken windows” are often associated with other crimes because they act as a signal and message to portray that the area is not very well policed and that minor offenses are tolerated. This can create a breeding ground for much larger crimes and escalate into considerable disorder. These “broken windows” also test the morality of ‘good citizens’ as found in Zardo’s study, as it serves as an effect-cause relationship that lures minor offenses when deemed ‘okay’ or almost ‘welcomed.’ This helps to explain social structure theory as well, as it shows how people contribute to their society given their environment. 
Instead of relying on law enforcement to address minor offenses, the focus should shift to community improvement. Investing in community resources may address the root cause of the disorder. This may involve tending to issues like more urban lighting to avoid dark, sketchy areas, abandoned buildings, or a lack of recreational facilities to encourage community. 
WC: 583
YouTube. (2023, December 18). Why the “broken windows” theory is wrong. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R7VYSWUufKA 
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Andrew Cruz (He/Him/His)
Jul 8 6:06pmLast reply Jul 9 7:59pm
Manage Discussion by Andrew Cruz
Reply from Andrew Cruz
Option 6:  The video “Why the ‘Broken Windows’ Theory Is Wrong” explains  the broken windows theory, which is that areas including graffiti and broken windows, encourage more serious crimes by giving the impression that the area is out of control. According to this theory, by James Q. Wilson and George Kelling,  keeping urban areas clean can stop additional damage and the rise in crime. However, the video explains how concentrating just on small violations can result in discrimination and excessive enforcement, particularly in communities of color. An example of this was seen during the Black Lives Matter movement with George Floyd. It makes the argument that harsh enforcement of small laws might damage people’s trust in law enforcement, which could increase hostility and conflict. Because broken windows indicate a lack of social control and a sense of community, they have a connection to other crimes. Neglected neighborhoods can give the sense that criminal activity is accepted, which may encourage more serious crimes. The shattered windows idea states that communities should maintain public areas, quickly repair damage, and make sure their neighborhoods are clean and well lit in order to lower crime. Participation in local safety efforts and neighborhood watch programs by residents is essential for building community participation. Using a community policing strategy, law enforcement can encourage collaboration and trust among communities. In addition to keeping the environment in order, it’s important to recognize the underlying social and economic problems. More improvements to safety in communities can be achieved by funding social services, employment opportunities, and education. 
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Nathan Rector
Jul 9 7:55pm
Manage Discussion by Nathan Rector
Reply from Nathan Rector
Option #2 Human trafficking 
Here are some links to articles and videos on human trafficking:
1. Article: “Human Trafficking: Modern Day Slavery” – https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html)
2. Video: 3AM Girls | Our America with Lisa Ling I Full Episode | OWN” https://youtu.be/gVuI5VMqr_Q?si=zYAbEE11dgpDVFkRLinks to an external site.
3. Article: “The Role of Social Class in Sex Trafficking” – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227745/ (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227745/)
Social structure theory explains the role of social class in sex trafficking by highlighting how individuals from lower socio-economic backgrounds are more vulnerable to being trafficked. These individuals may lack access to education, economic opportunities, and social support systems, making them easier targets for traffickers.One’s social class can make them more vulnerable to victimization of violence as they may be more likely to be in situations where they are marginalized, disenfranchised, and lacking in resources to protect themselves. Traffickers often prey on these vulnerabilities to exploit individuals for profit.The concentration effect exacerbates sexual exploitation in the case of child sex slaves by creating a situation where vulnerable individuals are concentrated in certain areas or situations, making it easier for traffickers to target and exploit them. This effect can lead to increased levels of violence and abuse against these victims.One of Merton’s social adaptations that can be applied to sex traffickers is innovation, where individuals use illegal or deviant means to achieve societal goals, such as making money. Sex traffickers often engage in this behavior by exploiting vulnerable individuals for financial gain.On the other hand, sex slaves may exhibit conformity as a social adaptation, as they may comply with the demands of their traffickers in order to survive and avoid further harm. This adaptation involves accepting societal goals and using legitimate means to achieve them, even in the face of exploitation and violence.
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