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Critically review key sources of information to underpin comparative analysis. Throughout the report, you must ensure to use relevant information on both countries, United Kingdom and Germany to demonstrate the


Globally, there is a large shortage of health care workers. The needs-based shortage of

health care workers is projected to exceed 18 million by 2030. The projection and current

trends of health workers production and employment have a significant impact on

populations’ health outcomes and health systems performance in achieving the World

Health Organisation’s Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 (WHO, 2022).

As a health system analyst, use comparative research methodology to examine the

challenges faced by both the United Kingdom and Germany with regards to their health

care workforce. In a report format, you should provide key statistical evidence from

literature on the health care workforce density per population in both countries, and

critically analyse the impact of workforce shortages on operational activities, such as

service delivery.

You will conclude your report by providing evidence-based and five (5) actionable

strategies for overcoming these challenges aimed at strengthening their respective health

systems in the aftermath of the pandemic.


Use ARU standard report format for writing structure.

In writing your report you are expected to use theoretical perspectives you have studied

during the course or from your research and make reference to national evidence. It is

expected that you will use 15-20 independently researched academic sources from the

ARU library.

LO1: Knowledge and Understanding

Critically review key sources of information to underpin comparative analysis.

Throughout the report, you must ensure to use relevant information on both countries,

United Kingdom and Germany to demonstrate the healthcare workforce challenges in

both health systems. You should support all discussions with evidence from credible

sources. Analysis should focus on providing differences and similarities of the challenges

and impact of the health workforce crisis.

LO3: Intellectual, practical, affective and transferrable skills

Applying comparative research methodologies.

There should be an application of comparative research methodology to compare and

contrast. Identify similarities and differences of the challenges. You must provide

recommendations of what need to be done for strengthening the health system workforce



Core reading

Johnson, J., Stoskopf, C. and Shi, L. (2017) Comparative Health Systems Burlington: MA

Jones and Bartlett Learning

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD,2022) Health at a

Glance: Europe. Available at: https://www.oecd.org/health/health-at-aglance-europe/.

The Commonwealth Fund: International Health Care Systems Profile (2022) Available at:


The World Health Organization: Working for Health 2022-2030 Action Plan (WHO,2022).

Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240063341.

Working for health and growth: investing in the health workforce – High-Level Commission

on Health Employment and Economic Growth. Available at:


World Health Organisation (WHO,2022) Working for health and growth: investing in the

health workforce. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241511308.

Wider reading

Kuhlmann et al., (2023) Comparing Health Workforce Policy during a Major Global Health

Crisis: A Critical Conceptual Debate and International Empirical Investigation. Int. J.

Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 5035. Available online at


Reed, S., Schlepper, L. and Edwards, N. (2022) Health system recovery from Covid-19

International lessons for the NHS. Nuffield Trust. Available online


Charles, A., Naylor, C. and Murray, R. (2021) The King’s fund Integrated care systems in

London Challenges and opportunities ahead. Available online


Please note that the sources listed are expected for your written assessment.

These sources will be part of the module and their content is deemed necessary to

produce a relevant assessment. Module markers will expect to see them integrated

into your work and appropriately referenced.

Failure to include these sources may result in a “Viva Voce” meeting during which

you would be required to explain your work and your reasons for not including

these key sources

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